Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a cultivated plant with perhaps the most complicated history in the world. The cultivation of hemp over the centuries has gone through many difficult times, and the very word "hemp" is still controversial today. Hemp is a plant with many applications, ranging from the industrial and food industries, as well as cosmetics and even pharmaceuticals. So why are there so many disputes over cannabis, and is it legal?
Cannabis in Poland - law (definitions)
The law overriding the legality of cannabis in Poland is the Act of 29 July 2005 on counteracting drug addiction (Journal of Laws of 2005, No. 179, item 1485, as amended). It includes key definitions:
Hemp - plants of the genus hemp (Cannabis L.)
Fiber hemp - plants of the species hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), in which the sum of the content of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (delta-9-THC-2-carboxylic acid) in the flowering or fruiting tops of plants from which they have not been removed resin, not more than 0.20% of the dry weight of non-fibrous hemp herb - any aboveground part of the hemp plant (single or in a mixture), excluding seeds, containing more than 0.20% of the sum of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (delta-9-THC-2-carboxylic acid).
The aforementioned act also states that: "The cultivation of industrial hemp may be carried out only for the needs of the textile, chemical, pulp and paper, food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, building materials and seed industries. (...) The cultivation of hemp other than those mentioned (...) is prohibited. " So - is hemp legal in Poland?
As a rule, yes, hemp is generally legal in Poland. Nevertheless, one of the most important determining factors is the content of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and THCA (delta-9-THC-2-carboxylic acid).
Cannabis sativa - what are they?
Hemp is a plant that has a high CBD content, while at the same time having only a trace of THC and THCA. Hemp (also known as: fibrous, industrial) is legal in Poland, provided that the concentration of THC and THCA does not exceed 0.2% in terms of dry weight.
Hemp is a cultivated plant that does not have high requirements. It also grows in Poland - several varieties are cultivated in our country. The hemp plant is to be distinguished from the cannabis plant. In Poland, the cultivation of cannabis (other than pure hemp), from which, for example, marijuana is produced, is prohibited.
Hemp in Poland - history
The history of cannabis in Poland is intertwined with the history of cannabis, which produces the drug "marijuana".
In the 1920s, laws appeared on drugs and penalties for trafficking or possession.
In 1928, Poland adopted an international convention limiting the use of cannabis (along with substances such as opium and cocaine) solely for scientific and medical purposes.
In post-war Poland, more precise provisions appeared in the 1997 Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction, which has since been amended and repealed several times. Currently, the law of July 29, 2005 (amended many times) is in force. However, cannabis is still illegal in Poland - including its possession.
The Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction regulates the issue of hemp cultivation.
On June 22, 2017, an act was adopted allowing the use of other hemp herb as fibrous (e.g. cannabis - marijuana) for the purpose of preparing prescription drugs.
Hemp sowing - cultivation in Poland
Fiber hemp (otherwise: true hemp) has been cultivated in Poland for a long time and has had a number of applications, primarily in industry. In the 1960s, a significant increase in the cultivation of hemp and the production of hemp fiber was observed in Poland. However, since the 1970s, the acreage of crops has been gradually decreasing due to the decrease in demand for raw material and the decline in profitability of this branch of agriculture. The total collapse of the market took place in the 1990s. The cause of the collapse of the cannabis market was the introduction of synthetic substitutes for hemp fibers, and restrictions on the cultivation of cannabis were also implemented. There were also unfair associations of industrial hemp with drug addiction, which could have an additional negative impact on the cannabis market. However, since 2004, interest in the cultivation of industrial hemp has increased again. This is related to the growing interest in natural materials, the development of ecology, more precise legal regulations, as well as the use of beneficial hemp oil in dietary supplements and cosmetics. The interest in the cultivation of hemp is gradually increasing, both in Poland and around the world.
Cannabis sativa - application
Hemp has a number of applications, not only dietary and health, but also industrial. For centuries they have been appreciated in agriculture due to their low cultivation requirements and efficiency. They were used as a feed additive, building material and for the production of ropes. They were widely cultivated even in home gardens. Interestingly, in the 16th century Great Britain, the cultivation of a small amount of cannabis was even mandatory.
Basic hemp raw materials
The basic raw materials obtained from hemp are fiber and seeds.
Raw materials from hemp seeds
Many valuable products are produced from hemp seeds, including:
hemp oil (hemp seed oil)
raw materials for the production of dietary supplements
raw materials for the production of hemp cosmetics
The use of hemp fiber
Hemp fiber is used in the textile, pulp and paper, and even construction industries. They are used to make, for example, ropes, ropes, sacks, sails, fishing nets, military tarpaulins, and even fire hoses. In construction, they are even used to make hollow blocks (yes, blocks!). All this is due to the unique properties of hemp - durability, rot resistance and insulating qualities.
People have been growing hemp for thousands of years! Also in Poland, the cultivation of hemp had a long tradition. After the downturn in the cannabis market, cultivation is now legal (under certain conditions) and more and more popular. Thanks to this, you can enjoy the beneficial properties of hemp without any problems.